Many international students and workers are always confused about the vaccine coverage within their OPT Insurance (aka opt 保险) Plans, J-1 Visa Insurance (aka j1 签证 保险) Plan, recommended US Travel Insurance (aka 美国旅游保险推荐), and/or H-1B Insurance (aka h1b 保险) Plans.
Overall, in 2011, the percentage of people without health insurance in the United States (aka 美国健康保险) was 15.7% (48.6 million) and the percentage was 17.8% (41.0 million) among adult populations. Among non-Hispanic whites, 11.1% (21.7 million) were uninsured in 2011, for non-Hispanic blacks 19.5% (7.7 million), and for Hispanics 30.1% (5.8 million).1 Cost has been a barrier to receiving timely preventive medical care. The relationship between health insurance and vaccination (aka 美国保险 疫苗) coverage among childhood and adolescent populations has been widely studied. Information regarding some adult vaccinations by health insurance status was documented previously.
Vaccination is the most effective strategy for preventing vaccine-preventable diseases and their complications. Adult vaccination coverage, however, remains low for most routinely recommended vaccines and well below Healthy People 2020 targets. The adult immunization schedule, updated annually by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), provides current recommendations for vaccinating adults. Influenza vaccination is recommended for all adults each year; other vaccinations recommended for adults target different populations based on age, health conditions, behavioral risk factors, occupation, travel, and other indications.
This study uses data from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to examine associations of routinely recommended adult vaccinations (influenza, pneumococcal [PPSV], tetanus toxoid–containing vaccines including tetanus and diphtheria toxoid [Td], tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis [Tdap], hepatitis A [HepA], hepatitis B [HepB], herpes zoster [shingles], and human papillomavirus [HPV]) with insurance status, having a primary physician, seeing a provider during the previous year, and select demographic characteristics.